What traditionally comes to your mind when you hear the word “DIVA”? Usually, one associates this term with great superstars. But the in the veterinary world we have our own DIVAs: Biogenesis Bago’s highly purified FMD vaccines, Aftogen Oleo and Bioaftogen, deserve to be recognised as such and let us tell you why you should care.
As a quick review: FMD virus creates 2 types of proteins, structural proteins (SP) and non-structural proteins (NSP). SP are responsible for inducing antibodies (Ab) for protective immunity (Ab-SP). On the other hand, NSP develop antibodies that are not related to protective immunity (Ab-NSP). FMD vaccines with excellent purification keep SP while removing NSP. Therefore, these FMD vaccines can be considered Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA) FMD vaccines. Still confused? Let’s have a deeper look.
The FMD virus replicates, creating thousands of copies of itself, including SP and NSP. The immune system will develop Ab against both proteins: Ab-SP and Ab-NSP.
When the FMDv infects the cells in the culture media, the virus replication also generates SP and NSP. An unpurified vaccine will incorporate SP and NSP; thus, vaccinated animals also develop Ab-SP and Ab-NSP.
It is impossible to differentiate between natural infection and a non-purified vaccine because both trigger the development of the same kind of antibodies.
During the manufacturing process, NSP and other impurities present in the culture media are removed through a high-technology purification method – keeping only SP. As a positive consequence, the immune system will only recognise and develop useful antibodies: Ab-SP.
“Purified vaccine is considered as marker vaccine. It allows you to differentiate between a naturally infected animal and vaccinated animal. This is what we call DIVA vaccine.
As a farmer, you might ask yourself, “Why should I care if the FMD vaccine I use is a DIVA vaccine or not? Both have the structural proteins anyway!” The truth is, you should care because there are a lot of benefits in using a DIVA FMD vaccine. These are the reasons why:
1. You are using a high-quality vaccine
There are a lot of FMD manufacturers globally, but not everyone has the manufacturing capability of Biogenesis Bago to develop and manufacture high-quality DIVA vaccines, which requires a specialised purification process to remove NSP and other impurities.
2. Your animals are safe, with no shock after vaccination
Impurities in the vaccine can cause tremors or anaphylactic shock. A DIVA vaccine without NSP and impurities has an increased safety profile, thus avoiding these adverse effects.
3. Your vaccine has increased efficacy
The FMD vaccine strain and formulation are responsible for the efficacy of an FMD vaccine. However, impurities can interfere with efficacy. When we eliminate impurities, the animals can focus in mounting a proper immune response.
4. Your vaccine is more stable with longer shelf life
Proteases that destroy proteins (including SP, which are essential in mounting immune response) are also removed during the purification process making the vaccine more stable and able to last longer while maintaining its efficacy.
5. You are helping your country in getting an FMD-free status
If all farmers use DIVA vaccines, detected NSP antibodies should come only from natural infection. If there is no presence of Ab-NSP, the DIVA vaccine is working, and there is no FMD virus circulating. The country can apply and acquire FMD-free status. Brunei, the Philippines, Singapore, and Taiwan did this and are now FMD-free. This makes DIVA vaccines crucial in eliminating FMD.
Biogenesis Bago’s DIVA vaccines, Aftogen Oleo (O1 Campos FMD vaccine) and Bioaftogen (O1 Campos, A24 Cruzeiro, and A2001 Argentina FMD vaccine), are not only purified vaccines, but the O1 Campos, A24 Cruzeiro, and A2001 Argentina vaccine strains have been proven to have broad cross-protection against different FMDv field isolates and their unique formulation guarantees early generation of antibodies and long duration of immunity.
This type of world class products is a “must have” in every farm to guarantee the health of your herd.
Get in touch if you have any questions or other ideas why an FMD DIVA vaccine is a must-have product in your farm.