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Background

Farm Visit: Next generation pig farmer preparing for the future

Farrow-to-finish farm Jansberg in the south of the Netherlands is a good example of swine farming with a modern outlook. The farm appears permanently in transition, applying modern technology and looking ahead, and is open to novel ways of making money. Recently a new gestating sow area was constructed, and the aim is to use as few antibiotics as possible.

Profile

Name: Tom Janssen, age 33
Function: Owner
Description: Jansberg farm is a closed farrow-to-finish facility with a 400 sow and 3,800 finisher capacity. Finishing (until roughly 120-130kg) occurs on-site as well as at a location in the vicinity. The farm has five buildings, most of them from different years. The gestating sow house has just been renewed in 2018, and in 2020 the farm is planning to replace the existing lactating sow houses. The farm uses Topigs Norsvin Tempo sows, which are re-bred on-farm, combined with a PIC terminal sire, currently achieving on average 30 pigs/sow/year. In times without trials, Janssen feeds a complete feed, sometimes partially supplemented with wheat or barley. In finisher pigs he achieves an average daily gain (ADG) of 830g. His feed conversion rate in finishers is 2.42, and mortality in finishers is 1.9.

Visiting Jansberg farm feels a little bit like doing athletics. It’s great to admire the new spacious gestating sow area, but – erm – watch your step as the occupants don’t really give way. So today’s visit is more like an obstacle course with visitors carefully hopping over snoozing bodies, each weighing 200+ kg, while hoping one of them will not suddenly rise.

Owner Tom Janssen, age 33, had this extension to the farm built in 2018. He felt it was time for a modern gestating area at his facility near Castenray, Limburg, the Netherlands. Although he has worked at the site since 2008, only in 2017 did he fully become an owner of the location, which is when he embarked on constructing a large gestation room. “I wanted it to be one big area,” he explains. “I like it when I can see far away.”

Bird's eye view of the Jansberg gestating sow area. - Photos: Bert Jansen
Bird's eye view of the Jansberg gestating sow area. - Photos: Bert Jansen

Wide and tall

The result is one massive room of 40m x 25m, with space for 220 gestating sows at different stages of pregnancy. Not only is it wide, it is also tall, as the roof is 7m above the ground. The new building offers climatic advantages, Janssen explains. “In the winter we never have to do any additional heating. You can imagine that there is a lot of heat coming from the animals themselves.” In the Netherlands, temperatures may drop to -10˚C but in recent years this has only very rarely happened. He continues, “In summer, this system is great as we can ventilate as much as possible. Warm air going round is not a draught. We hardly have any problem with bad smells.”

The gestating sows have fresh straw at their disposal.
The gestating sows have fresh straw at their disposal.

Breeding area

The large area also includes a semi-open compartment for insemination purposes. There are two rows of 35 crates, supplied with additional TL lighting, which provide light from 6am until 10pm. Initially, strangely enough, Janssen achieved a breeding rate of only 90%, with 10% being not-in-pig. He solved that by having the sows go round in the area the first two days after weaning. Once they had had their bit of movement, the breeding rate went up to be virtually perfect. Sows are moved into the general gestation area after four to five days, which is in line with legislation in the Netherlands.

The gestating sows' tails are only partially cut.
The gestating sows' tails are only partially cut.

Looking ahead and investing

With his investment of a new gestating sow facility, Janssen has shown clear optimism about the future of his farm in an otherwise fairly complex market. Yes, current prices mean it is good to be a pig producer in Western Europe these days due to African Swine Fever in other parts of the world. Nevertheless, in the densely populated Netherlands, pig production is increasingly under pressure. In recent national surveys, nitrogen deposition values have been found to be too high and, increasingly, the authorities appear to identify the livestock industry as the number one business to blame for that. In an attempt to reduce the effect of livestock production on the environment, a nationwide scheme allows producers to sign up if they are ready to shut their business. It is characteristic of the climate in the Dutch pig industry that over 500 farmers have chosen to sign up.

Farrowing area

Not Tom Janssen, though. Besides the gestating sow house, the piglet area was reconstructed in 2019 and his next plan involves a reconstruction of the current lactation house. Currently it houses 120 sows, and as the buildings are rather outdated, they will be demolished in the course of 2020. The first step in this process is to replace the current capacity – a capacity upgrade is possible but not yet planned. Janssen says, “These buildings will also be one open space; again, that’s what I prefer. We also took into account that in the future it might become law that sows will have to be loose during most of lactation. I’m pretty sure it will head that way – perhaps not in the next 10 years, but it will come. If that turns out to be true, we can easily convert to those new requirements.” Currently he weans 30 piglets/sow/year – due to more space being available for the piglets in the new farrowing and lactation house as from late 2020, Janssen expects that figure to go up.

At Jansberg farm, technical results of weaning piglets can be followed.
At Jansberg farm, technical results of weaning piglets can be followed.

Upbeat about the future

One way of going that extra mile is that for several years, his farm has also been a trial farm for Joosten Young Animal Products, including products developed to reduce antibiotics usage (see also box). The company mostly produces high quality feed for piglets. The products obviously need to be tested and tried often under commercial conditions so there will be plenty of documented experience about their efficacy before they hit the market.

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The testing in the weaner buildings, which were renewed in 2019, involves various rounds of weighing. Janssen says, “It is usually quite a lot of extra work, as we would normally do that roughly five times per production round. Typically I will place most piglets apart and then weigh them one by one. What is helpful is that each piglet has a radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag in their ear, so data can easily be stored.”

These tests are usually blind, he says, that is he does not know which batches get the feed with Joosten products included and which get the control feed. Positive or negative results for him are impossible to gauge, he says. “That is usually a matter of 50g or so, which is impossible to see with the naked eye. The only thing that one sometimes can see is faeces quality. When the feed is highly digestible, you’ll see that there is not a lot of diarrhoea occurring.”

A clever way of adding extra space in the farm: a pen on a second floor.
A clever way of adding extra space in the farm: a pen on a second floor.

Antibiotics usage

The RFID also plays a role in another future-proof project: Jansberg is participating in the Westfort slaughterhouse’s scheme to market antibiotic-free meat. As such, the farm is trying to get by without the usage of antibiotics. Seeing that the farm produces its own breeding stock, the disease pressure is relatively low. Antibiotics are only used on an individual basis, Janssen says. “We may treat an individual pig for a cough or a sow for lameness. Then we will fill that out in the system that corresponds to the animal’s ear tag, so at the slaughterhouse they will know which ones to process differently.”

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Manure treatment

Last but not least, outside the farm there is a huge manure separation truck installed, pumping up the manure from the pits and separating it into liquid and solid parts. Janssen says, “The liquid part is being spread out on the land nearby, but the solid part is sold off.” He grins: “It’s the black gold.”

Outdoors the manure is separated into liquid and solid parts.
Outdoors the manure is separated into liquid and solid parts.

Electronic Sow Feeding

The farm visit ends where it began, as the mandatory showers are next to the gestation area. In that room, full of quietly sleeping sows, Janssen opted for dynamic groups with Electronic Sow Feeding stations by Nedap. He is happy having made that choice, given that the gestating sow house is peaceful and does not require a lot of manual work.

The animals are fed rations from 3pm each afternoon, with the amounts depending on their stage of gestation, up to a maximum of 2.8kg per visit. Should the ear tag reveal that the sow has already eaten, then the system can simply send her out again. Janssen says, “My personal touch to all this is that I have created a circuit through the pig house. Sows have to walk all the way around to get back to the entrance of the feeding stations. So dominant sows tend not to come back to the feeding station immediately.”

Anyway, sows usually choose to wait their turn. Pointing up, Janssen says, “The other day we threw a party in the farm office, which is right up there, with windows looking out over the gestation area. Even later at night we could still observe sows going in to get their share of feed. When you check their daily feeding behaviour, you can see a pattern. It’s not like they feed at 10pm one day, and the next day in the afternoon. They always like to feed at the same time of the day.”

Future-proof feeding sources

Two of the future-proof products that recently went for trials at the Jansberg farm were JPC 56 and FMR Ω3, developed by Joosten Young Animal Nutrition. In 2019 trials by Illinois University in the US, these dietary ingredients scored exceptionally well in digestibility trials involving cannulated piglets – the products achieved scores of 98.9% and 96.3% respectively, meaning that the products’ amino acids are virtually completely digested before it reaches the colon. That in turn means that there is hardly any substrate for pathogenic gut bacteria to feed on any undigested proteins in the colon – hence the need for gut-health controlling mechanisms like antibiotics is strongly reduced.

The vegetable protein products are being produced in a specialised Dutch manufacturing site dedicated to feeds and ingredients for young animals, a good hour’s drive away from Castenray, the farm’s location. For production, different vegetable protein ingredients are used such as soy, wheat gluten, pea and potato proteins. In order to reach these high digestibility values, it is imperative that the locally sourced ingredients are always fresh and of superior quality, explains Wim Beeks, manager of sales and marketing with Joosten.

Once inside the facility, they are finely ground to a particle size of 200 microns. The particle size is also an explanation for the high digestibility of these protein sources, adds his colleague Lars Gorisse, technical manager at Joosten. He says, “That means that the anti-nutritional factors also naturally present in some raw ingredients, like for instance β-conglycinin in soy, are also ground to very small particles. In that size, the piglet’s gastrointestinal tract can better deal with them.”

The other natural components glutamine and omega-3 fatty acids in the formulated products have, in combination with the high amino acid digestibility, shown to improve feed conversion ratio, manure quality, survival rate and uniformity in many university and piglet field trials.

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