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CSF Brazil: 2 outbreaks outside the Free Zone

The Brazilian state Piaui, in the country’s North East region, confirmed 2 outbreaks of Classical Swine Fever (CSF) last week. The state is not inside the CSF Free Zone.

The outbreaks were confirmed by the Agricultural Defense Agency of Piauí (Adapi) on March 22, in 2 small non-commercial pig farms in the municipality of Demerval Lobão, at 1,200 km from Tocantins state, geographically the closest state that is inside the CSF Free Zone.

Pigs suffering from diarrhoea, apathy and fever

In both establishments, pigs presented conjunctivitis, cough, diarrhoea, apathy and fever, associated with the death of piglets. Rapidly, the properties were closed by Adapi agents, 11 pigs were euthanised and the farms were disinfected.

The Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA) notified those outbreaks to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and the Adapi team continues to monitor the region to track possible new cases.

Germano Coelho, superintendent of the state’s ministry of agriculture, commented, “We are going to create a Swine Fever Monitoring Committee in Demerval Lobão involve all entities. The goal is to monitor the region and livestock to make sure the disease will not spread.”

Adapi staff observing the depopulation of 1 of the 2 facilities that had to be depopulated. - Photo: Adapi
Adapi staff observing the depopulation of 1 of the 2 facilities that had to be depopulated. - Photo: Adapi

North East of Brazil had more CSF cases

It is not completely uncommon for the North East of Brazil to report outbreaks of CSF. In previous years, the virus popped up there from time to time. In 2019, there were also reports of CSF in Piauí state, one year earlier it was found in neighbouring Ceará state. Brazil is in the process of eradicating the virus from the whole of its territory.

Currently, the south of Brazil forms the CSF-free zone, including the federal district around the capital Brasilia as well as 15 states: Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Goiás, Tocantins, Bahia, Sergipe, Rondônia and Acre.

Together with 10 states in Brazil’s North East region, Piauí is not included in Brazil’s CSF Free Zone with 10 other states. These are Alagoas, Amazonas, Roraima, Pará, Amapá, Maranhão, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba and Pernambuco.

Closest neighbouring state in CSF Free Zone

The nearest state free from CSF is Tocantins, which is about 1,200 km away. Yet the Tocantins Agricultural Defense Agency (Adapec) keeps inspections on a daily basis, mainly on the border with not only Piaui, but also Pará and Maranhão.

Adapec emphasises the importance for Tocantins pig producers not to acquire live pigs, products and by-products from states without a CSF free zone status.

Regina Barbosa, technically responsible for Tocantins state swine programme, said, “Tocantins plays a strategic role because it is part of the states with international recognition of free area for CSF and makes direct borders with non-free states. We are a protection barrier for more productive areas in Brazil, therefore, we need to remain vigilant.”

Tocantins has a pig herd of 244,478 head, distributed over 174 commercial farms and 23,608 smaller sites.